Football Experts – Opinion & Commentary

first_img Jamie Carragher 18/10/20 7:20pm Carra: Title race blown open as Van Dijk prepares for surgery Virgil van Dijk’s knee injury has “blown the title race wide open”, says Sky Sports’ Jamie Carragher, who has urged Liverpool to sign a new centre-back in January.- Advertisement –last_img

Sofitel Dubai the Obelisk opens in Dubai | News

first_imgIt is located in the Dubai Wafi region.Mark Willis, chief executive Middle East & Africa at Accor, said: “This is a very exciting opening for us in the region as, aside from it being the largest Sofitel property in the Middle East & Africa, it is also set to become a landmark in the city, showcasing exquisite service combined with an iconic design and architecture. “Congratulations to the team of Sofitel Dubai the Obelisk, who have worked tirelessly to ensure this opening is a success.”- Advertisement – With a prime location in Wafi, the premium shopping and leisure destination, just ten minutes away from Dubai International Airport, Sofitel Dubai the Obelisk is set to charm guests with ultimate comfort, extraordinary experiences and the French way of living.Ayman Gharib, managing director of Sofitel Dubai the Obelisk, commented: “Inspired by the Luxor Obelisk located in Place de La Concorde in Paris, Sofitel Dubai the Obelisk, is a testament to the Wafi Complex development and rounds up the lifestyle and entertainment destination that the founder, sheikh Mana bin Khalifa Al Maktoum, envisioned it to be. “The Wafi Group, since its establishment nearly four decades ago, has been setting trends and standards of excellence. – Advertisement – Sofitel Dubai the Obelisk has opened its doors in Dubai.Merging modern French art de vivre and ancient Egyptian heritage, it becomes the largest Accor property in the Middle East and Africa. – Advertisement – – Advertisement –center_img OlderPotential Hong Kong-Singapore travel bubble boosts demand “Upholding its values and traditions and finding partners that echo the same, Sofitel Dubai the Obelisk has partnered with three prominent food and beverage and spa partners: Daniel Boulud, Schilo van Coeverden and L’Occitane.“This move will ensure that the hotel speaks to a diverse and distinguished audience.”last_img read more

Tularemia cases on Martha’s Vineyard puzzle experts

first_imgAug 11, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – A medical mystery is baffling infectious disease experts on Martha’s Vineyard.The island off Cape Cod, Mass., has had a string of mysterious tularemia cases. For the fifth summer in a row, people are falling ill with the rare pneumonic form of tularemia, one of the six diseases considered most likely to be spread by terrorists.The only two reported outbreaks of pneumonic tularemia recorded in the United States have occurred on Martha’s Vineyard. Experts from several fields are collaborating to discover why people on the island, particularly landscapers, are contracting the pneumonic form of the illness. The cases may offer lessons for protecting the country from bioterrorism.Cases don’t fit the patternTularemia, also known as “rabbit fever,” was first identified as a disease of rodents and other small animals in 1911. It is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. The illness is spread through bites from ticks, deerflies, or other insects; handling infected animal carcasses; eating or drinking contaminated food or water; or inhaling the bacteria. It is not known to spread from person to person. The disease can be fatal if not treated with the right antibiotics, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Symptoms vary with the type of exposure, but may include sudden fever, chills, headache, diarrhea, muscle aches, joint pain, dry cough, progressive weakness, mouth or skin ulcers, and swollen and painful lymph glands and eyes, according to the CDC. Although the disease can be fatal, the overall case-fatality rate in the United States is less than 2%, according to a JAMA review published in 2001.Most of the roughly 120 tularemia cases reported in the United States each year are ulceroglandular or glandular cases, usually from tick bites or from handling dead rabbits, said Bela Matyas, MD, MPH, medical director of the epidemiology program for the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. The pneumonic form doesn’t often occur under natural circumstances, he told CIDRAP News.But what is known about tularemia doesn’t explain the pneumonic cases on Martha’s Vineyard.One outbreak occurred in 1978. The disease resurfaced in 2000 and has cropped up each summer since. Fifteen cases were identified in 2000; 11 of those patients had the pneumonic form, and one died. Four cases, including three pneumonic, were diagnosed in 2001. At least two pneumonic cases were diagnosed in 2002, followed by four in 2003, according to published reports.So far this summer, one patient has been confirmed to have pneumonic tularemia and one other has a probable case, Matyas said. A third confirmed case, just reported Aug 10, is not the pneumonic form and is not in a landscaper, he reported. He said the syndrome in the case was not yet clearLandscapers are consistently more likely than others to contract tularemia than non-landscapers are. In 2001, 9% of 132 landscapers tested seropositive for the F tularensis antibody, compared with less than 1% of other residents in each of three comparison groups, according to a serologic survey conducted by Matyas and colleagues and reported in Emerging Infectious Diseases in March 2003.People who contracted pneumonic tularemia were more likely to have recently used brush-cutting or mowing equipment, the state health department said in a June press release, adding that exposure likely occurred by inhaling aerosols of contaminated dust, soil, or grass during landscaping activities.”It’s not a casual risk. People are wandering on the same areas the landscapers do without becoming sick,” Matyas said. Scientists don’t yet know why, but Matyas said his best guess is that F tularensis is in the soil or grass in a form that can become airborne with mechanical disruption.A survivor’s theoryTristan Israel, who owns a landscaping business, has another theory. He contracted tularemia in June 2001 and spent about 10 days “pretty delirious” with a high fever before antibiotics knocked back the illness. It took even longer to recover physically from the close call, he said in a phone interview.Although Israel wrote a song about tularemia that refers to lawn mowers chopping up small animals, he believes his illness could be linked to having been “viciously attacked by mosquitoes” a week before his illness.A selectman on the Tisbury town council for the past 12 years, Israel said people have been fairly calm about tularemia. For example, despite repeated recommendations from health experts, landscapers don’t always wear protective masks.”When it’s 85 degrees, it’s very difficult to wear a mask. You’re outside in the heat and the dust. Wearing a mask doesn’t cool you down any,” Israel said.A controversial hypothesisSam Telford III, ScD, associate professor of infectious disease at the Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine in Boston, is listening to theories like Israel’s and considering his own. He has interviewed victims, trapped animals, and extensively researched the cases since they began.Telford told CIDRAP News that he wonders whether the pneumonic tularemia cases are primary or secondary. Studies from the 1940s and 1950s show that, left untreated, any form of tularemia can become pneumonic, he said.”We don’t know what the frequency of pneumonia is even in tularemia that is promptly treated,” Telford said. The possibility that the island’s tularemia cases aren’t contracted through inhalation further complicates the challenge of tracking the disease’s reservoir and vector.Matyas said the state health department, while not rejecting Telford’s theory, doesn’t feel the evidence supports it. For every case of ulceroglandular tularemia that becomes pneumonic, there should be a large number of primary ulceroglandular cases. Yet doctors have seen very few cases of ulceroglandular tularemia, despite screening for it, Matyas said. In addition, none of the patients with pneumonic disease reported prior symptoms suggesting ulceroglandular disease, he added.That debate aside, Telford’s research shows the disease process on the island is complex. “It’s not as simple as landscapers kicking up something from the soil and breathing it in,” he said. “Or if it is, what are they breathing in?”In search of an animal reservoirRabbits are often implicated in tularemia, but Telford, who has studied tickborne diseases for 20 years, suspects they may not be the main culprits on Martha’s Vineyard. In the past 6 years he has tested more than 250 rabbits on nearby Nantucket Island, which has a high rabbit population. He never saw any evidence of tularemia. There has been only one recent human case of tularemia on Nantucket, in 2001, Telford added.Martha’s Vineyard has a far smaller rabbit population, and several factors have made testing difficult, Telford said. However, three dead rabbits reported on the island tested positive for tularemia, and another dozen tested negative, he reported.Matyas said rabbits are not the reservoir on Martha’s Vineyard. “It’s probably some animal that’s able to tolerate the bacterium better,” he said.Some as-yet-unidentified insect is helping to maintain the reservoir by spreading among mammals, but that insect doesn’t appear to be the route of human infection, Matyas said. “It’s very unusual.”To complicate matters, tularemia “hot spots” dot the island, but are difficult to pinpoint. “It’s definitely looking for a needle in a haystack,” Matyas said.Telford said Martha’s Vineyard has many skunks, raccoons, opossums, and foxes and also has the type of wood tick associated with tularemia. He has found 0.3% to 4.0% of ticks carry F tularensis. The ticks feed on skunks and raccoons. Fifty percent to 80% of skunks and raccoons on the island carry antibodies to tularemia, Telford said. That figure is high compared with at least two reports of studies elsewhere, but few researchers have focused on these animals, he added.The numbers raise more questions: Are skunks and raccoons an important reservoir that contributes to spreading the pathogen to humans, or just an incidental host that doesn’t play a role in transmission?”The role of raccoons and skunks is not yet determined,” Telford said. “The hypothesis that needs to be explored is, perhaps raccoons and skunks are dropping excreta that is mowed over.”He has been sampling raccoons and skunks for 3 years, long enough to be philosophical about getting sprayed by skunks, which becomes fairly routine after the first time, he said. Once, he said, he was sprayed right in the face. That was when he discovered that applying Coca-Cola cuts the stench.Implications for biodefenseThe CDC estimated in 1997 that the total costs to society of an F tularensis aerosol attack would be $5.4 billion for every 100,000 people exposed. A World Health Organization expert committee estimated in 1969 that dispersing 50 kg of aerosolized F tularensis over a metropolitan area with 5 million residents would lead to 19,000 deaths and 250,000 incapacitating casualties.Because of concerns about bioterrorism, tularemia surveillance has increased nationwide in recent years. It was dropped from the list of nationally notifiable diseases in 1994, but the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists reinstated it in 2000 because of its potential use by terrorists, said Lisa Rotz, MD, acting director of the CDC’s Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Program. Now, many states require reporting of cases within 24 hours, and improved diagnostic tests are more readily available to speed confirmation of the illness. Defining tularemia as a potential bioterrorism threat has led to better training to recognize the illness in patients, she added.Telford said consistent monitoring of wild animal populations could play an important role in biodefense. The Martha’s Vineyard cases point up the utility of wildlife surveillance as a tool to give early warning of natural or unnatural outbreaks, he said.”You need to have wildlife surveillance to complement hospital surveillance,” he said. Should an outbreak like the one on Martha’s Vineyard occur elsewhere, checking wildlife for previous exposure to tularemia could help determine whether the outbreak is natural or human-caused. If the animals aren’t seropositive, it could indicate tularemia is being used as a bioweapon, Telford said.Yet the mysteries of this outbreak point to a larger concern about biodefense, he added.”I think the lesson there is, we can’t even understand a natural outbreak. A clever, illegitimate outbreak is going to be very hard to investigate,” he said. “What we learn out there may give us technologies and ways of answering questions that could help us if we encounter a creative person interested in doing bad. For effective biodefense, we have to think out of the box.”See also:Feldman KA, Stiles-Enos D, Julian K, et al. Tularemia on Martha’s Vineyard: seroprevalence and occupational risk. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:3 [Full text]Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, et al. Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA 2001;285(21) [Full text]Kaufman AF, Meltzer MI, Schmid GP. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack: are prevention and postattack intervention programs justifiable? Emerg Infect Dis 1997;3(2) [Full text]CIDRAP overview of tularemialast_img read more

Canada may have another BSE case

first_imgApr 14, 2006 (CIDRAP News) – Preliminary testing has pointed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease, in a 6-year-old dairy cow from southern British Columbia, the Canadian government announced yesterday. If further tests confirm the disease, the cow will be Canada’s fifth case of BSE. But no part of the cow entered the human food or animal feed systems, and the carcass is under the government’s control, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) said. “The first part of this process has been completed and produced a preliminary positive result,” the CFIA said. “Final testing is now under way and will be completed over the holiday weekend.” Because of government safeguards, the potential case has “no bearing on the safety of Canadian beef,” the agency said. Tissues where BSE is known to concentrate in infected animals are removed from all cattle slaughtered in Canada, cattle at increased risk are tested, and the use of cattle protein in cattle feed is banned.center_img The cow, from a Fraser Valley farm, was identified through Canada’s national BSE surveillance program, the agency said. After screening tests yielded inconclusive results, samples from the cow were sent to the National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease in Winnipeg for further testing. Four BSE cases have been found in Canada, the first one in May 2003. The last confirmed case was identified in January of this year in a 6-year-old cow in northern Alberta. The first case led to a 2-year ban on shipments of live Canadian cattle into the United States. The US border was reopened in July 2005 to Canadian cattle younger than 30 months old.last_img read more

IOM studying protective garb for health workers

first_imgMar 1, 2007 (CIDRAP News) – A special committee of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is studying questions about the role of equipment such as masks, gowns, and gloves in protecting healthcare workers during an influenza pandemic and is expected to release a report in September.The 12-member committee met in Washington, DC, Feb 22 to hear from medical experts, manufacturers, government agencies, and other groups with a stake in the use of personal protective equipment (PPE).The panel “is looking for ideas to understand and improve the effectiveness of PPE” in a flu pandemic and also examining behavioral factors that affect health workers’ use of such equipment, said Debra Berg, MD, director of the Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, who attended the Washington meeting.The committee is looking at factors that affect workers’ willingness to wear PPE, how well they can breathe and communicate through masks and respirators, and how long they can wear them at a time, among other issues, Berg told CIDRAP News.At the meeting, the group also examined “what was needed to further develop face masks and respirators in terms of materials and equipment and wearability for healthcare workers to maintain their own safety during pandemic flu,” she added.Another topic was the usefulness and wearability of reusable masks, called elastomeric masks, Berg said. The aim of the meeting was to gather information, not try to build consensus on particular issues.On the complex question of respiratory protection, “People were saying we need more ways to rank or judge different masks or respirators,” said Cathy Liverman, a senior program officer at the IOM in Washington.The meeting’s formal agenda included panel discussions on the risks to health workers, designing and engineering PPE, individual and institutional issues in the use of PPE, and certification and regulation of PPE. PowerPoint presentations from the meeting are available on the IOM Web site (see link below).The 12-member committee is planning to issue a report in September, said Liverman. The report will make recommendations on research directions, government agency roles, and perhaps policy changes, but will not include recommendations about actual PPE use during a pandemic, she said.Liverman said the committee, called the IOM Committee on Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers during an Influenza Pandemic, is a spinoff of the IOM’s standing committee on PPE. The group’s next meeting is scheduled for May.See also:Agenda of Feb 22 IOM committee meetinghttp://nationalacademies.org/hmd/Activities/PublicHealth/FluPersProtEqui…last_img read more

FLU CONFERENCE COVERAGE H5N1, other flu viruses show signs of drug resistance

first_imgJun 22, 2007 – TORONTO (CIDRAP News) – Scientists are uncovering naturally occurring resistance in influenza to the antiviral drugs that can prevent or treat it, potentially complicating plans by international authorities and many countries to build large drug stockpiles as a hedge against a pandemic.In presentations yesterday at the International Conference on Options for the Control of Influenza, researchers outlined the discovery of mutations that appear to reduce the susceptibility of H5N1 avian flu to the leading antiviral drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu). Other findings uncovered mutations in a seasonal flu strain, H1N1, that could reduce the effectiveness of another antiviral, zanamivir (Relenza), and a not-yet-released antiviral, peramivir.The mutations, which were discovered via laboratory assays, appear to be spontaneous and not the result of inappropriate use of the drugs on avian flu patients, the researchers said. But they represent a daunting development in a field where the pharmaceutical options for containing influenza have diminished as H5N1, feared as the possible precursor to a pandemic strain, has extended its range.”Nature has surprises in store,” said Dr. Jennifer McKimm-Breschkin of Australia’s CSIRO Molecular Health Technologies. “If oseltamivir has lower effectiveness against these isolates, this is not good news.”Indonesian, Cambodian isolates appear resistantIn the most surprising paper, McKimm-Breschkin revealed that isolates from two of the H5N1 virus’s three main groupings, or clades, have developed partial resistance to oseltamivir.Viruses recovered from domestic birds in Cambodia, a clade 1 country, became 6 to 7 times less sensitive to oseltamivir between 2004 and 2005, as measured by lab tests. And 2005 isolates from Indonesia, the country where the clade 2 grouping arose before spreading west as far as Europe, were 25 to 30 times less sensitive to oseltamivir than any of the clade 1 viruses collected in 2004.In an unusual finding, McKimm-Breschkin said, the virus remained virulent despite the mutation—which might explain why Indonesia has the world’s highest case-fatality rate for H5N1 (80%).Influenza’s ability to resist the action of antiviral drugs is a particular concern because only four licensed drugs in two classes work against it: oseltamivir and zanamivir (the neuraminidase inhibitors), and the older drugs amantadine and rimantadine (the adamantanes). Both drug resistance and concern over its implications have been increasing recently.In December 2005, Dr. Menno de Jong and colleagues reported that 2 out of 8 patients treated at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, died of oseltamivir-resistant H5N1 flu. In January 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urged physicians treating seasonal flu not to use the two older drugs, after routine tests revealed that 91% of isolates were resistant to them.And in April 2007, Dr. Shuji Hatakeyama of the University of Tokyo published an account in the Journal of the American Medical Association of 8 children who had been stricken with seasonal influenza B, were treated with oseltamivir, and subsequently showed mutations conferring resistance against the drug. Three of the children were infected with the partially resistant strain by others, the paper said.Higher doses may overcome resistanceBecause the oseltamivir-resistance mutations reported yesterday were found in lab tests of bird isolates, it is difficult to draw conclusions about human treatment, McKimm-Breschkin said. But in another presentation yesterday, Dr. Elena Govorkova of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis kept a clade 2 virus from Turkey from replicating in ferrets by administering the equivalent of 2.5 times the standard human dose of oseltamivir, signaling that the drug may be able to overcome the mutation if administered early enough and in high enough doses.The World Health Organization (WHO) currently is revising treatment recommendations for both dosing and timing of oseltamivir, based on the shared experience of clinicians who have treated H5N1 patients, said Dr. Frederick Hayden of the agency’s Global Influenza Programme. Hayden, who was the lead author of a 2005 review of H5N1 drug resistance, said experience in several countries has shown that earlier and longer treatment and higher doses may make a difference to patients’ survival.That input is needed, McKimm-Breschkin said: If patients infected with less-susceptible strains of virus receive drug doses that are too low to overcome the mutation, the strains will survive and could develop greater resistance.She said the discovery should signal the need to include other drugs such as zamamivir in pandemic planning: “Relying solely on oseltamivir for stockpiles poses the risk that we will be left behind without an effective drug.”But other research presented yesterday found mutations in H1N1 seasonal flu that could affect the usefulness of other drugs. Four isolates from the Philippines, analyzed as part of a routine review at the WHO’s Influenza Collaborating Center in Melbourne, Australia, showed changes that could interfere with the action of zanamivir and peramivir, said Dr. Aeron Hurt of the center. Because zanamivir is little-used in the Philippines and peramivir is still in phase 1 trials, the researchers assume the mutations are spontaneous and not due to inadequate drug treatment.”Whether this would confer clinical resistance is still unknown,” Hurt said.But if the findings are bad news for the remaining influenza drugs, presentations and posters at the conference demonstrated that there are other drugs entering the pipeline—a change from the last Options conference, which was held 4 years ago when H5N1 avian flu was just beginning its intercontinental spread.An experimental drug called Fludase bypasses the flu virus altogether and instead temporarily blocks the lung-tissue receptors where the flu virus binds to replicate, Dr. Jessica Belser of Emory University said in a presentation yesterday. In a small mouse study, the compound worked prophylactically to protect against H5N1 infection and as a treatment after exposure to the virus.The compound, made by NexBio of San Diego, will enter phase 1 clinical trials this summer, Belser said.See also:Apr 19 WHO summary of recommendations on clinical treatment of human H5N1 caseshttp://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/epidemiology_clinical/clinical_meeting_h5n1_19_03_2007/en/index.htmlMar 29 CIDRAP News story “International network to study high-dose Tamiflu”Dec 22, 2005, CIDRAP News story “Tamiflu resistance in avian flu victims sparks concern”De Jong MD, Thanh TT, Khanh TH, et al. Oseltamivir resistance during ttreatment of influenza A (H5N1) infection. N Engl J Med 2005 Dec 22;353(25):2667-72 [Full text]Hatakeyama S, Sugaya N, Ito M, et al. Emergence of influenza B viruses with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase. JAMA 2007 Apr 4;297(13):1435-42 [Abstract]CDC announcement on adamantaneshttp://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5502a7.htmlast_img read more

Man’s death raises Indonesia’s H5N1 toll to 85

first_imgSep 6, 2007 (CIDRAP News) – Indonesian health ministry officials today reported a fatal H5N1 avian influenza infection in a 33-year-old man from the island of Sumatra.Joko Suyono, an official at the health ministry’s avian flu center, said the man was from Riau province and had contact with chickens before becoming ill on Aug 25, according to Xinhua, China’s state news agency. “He processed chicken that he bought from a nearby market,” Suyono told Xinhua.The man, a plantation worker, was hospitalized 10 days ago with a high fever, a cough, and breathing difficulties, Arman Zubair, another health ministry official, told the Associated Press (AP) today. He said the man previously seemed to be recovering, but his infection worsened suddenly and he died today, the AP reported.If the case is confirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO), it will go down as Indonesia’s 85th avian flu fatality and 106th case. Indonesia has the world’s highest toll of H5N1 cases and deaths. The WHO’s global H5N1 count is 327 cases with 199 deaths.Animal-health experts believe the H5N1 virus has become endemic in poultry in some parts of Indonesia. In August, the country’s resort island of Bali reported its first two human H5N1 cases, both fatal.last_img read more

NEWS SCAN: H5N1 case confirmed, pandemic vaccine allocation, killing H5N1, DNA flu vaccine, combining antiseptics

first_imgMar 30, 2009WHO confirms H5N1 infection in Egyptian girlThe World Health Organization (WHO) today confirmed H5N1 avian influenza in a 2-year-old Egyptian girl from Qena governorate who is hospitalized in stable condition. She got sick on Mar 23 and was admitted to the hospital the next day and immediately treated with oseltamivir (Tamiflu). A probe into the source of her infection revealed she had close contact with sick and dead poultry before she became ill. The WHO’s confirmation raises the number of H5N1 cases in Egypt to 60, of which 23 were fatal. The global H5N1 count rises to 413 cases and 256 deaths.[Mar 30 WHO statement]Hawaii seeks input on pandemic vaccine allocationThe Hawaii Department of Health has launched a program to gather the public’s input on what groups should be vaccinated first in an influenza pandemic, the Honolulu Advertiser reported yesterday. The department’s advisory group on pandemic vaccine allocation will launch a public education campaign in April that will feature three live, 1-hour telecast forums, community meetings, and an “Alternate Reality Game.”Phase 1 trial of DNA flu vaccine yields modest resultsA phase 1b clinical trial of a DNA vaccine for seasonal influenza yielded modest results but offered the first evidence that a DNA vaccine can protect humans from disease, according to the authors, who reported the study recently in Vaccine. The vaccine contains DNA that encodes influenza hemagglutinin and is delivered by propelling microscopic gold beads into the skin. Volunteers received either 4 micrograms (mcg) of trivalent vaccine, 2 mcg of trivalent vaccine with an adjuvant, or a placebo; 56 days later they were exposed to a common seasonal flu virus. Compared with the placebo group, the 4-mcg group had reduced symptoms, a significant 53% reduction in upper respiratory tract infections, and nonsignificant reductions in lab-confirmed flu and in any illness. The authors say the findings show that the vaccine needs further development but support the principle that DNA vaccines can protect humans from flu.[Vaccine abstract]H5N1 virus tested against physical, chemical challengesTo help guide the use of biosecurity measures for poultry farms, Pakistani scientists examined the effects of a wide variety of physical and chemical conditions on H5N1 avian influenza viruses. Among their findings, reported in the Virology Journal: Soap, detergent, and alkali (caustic soda) destroyed the virus within 5 minutes at respective dilutions of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. An hour of exposure to ultraviolet light did not kill the virus. It survived no more than 30 minutes at 56ºC but persisted more than 100 days at 4ºC. All commercially available disinfectants killed the virus when used at recommended concentrations.[Virology Journal abstract]Two nondrug antiseptics work better when combinedResearch presented at the annual meeting of Britain’s Society for General Microbiology indicates that two long-standing nondrug antiseptics, tea tree oil and silver nitrate, kill bacteria more efficiently when combined. The study also indicated that the antimicrobials can be delivered in smaller, less toxic doses if packaged in microscopic spheres called liposomes, made from natural lipids. The antiseptics were tested on pathogens that commonly cause wound infections, including Staphylococcus aureus.[Mar 29 EurekAlert press release]last_img read more

The European Commission has approved funding to Croatia for another 15 transport projects worth more than 72m euros

first_imgThe Republic of Croatia received a certificate from the European Commission approving the financing of 15 transport projects from the 3rd Call of the CEF, in the total amount of EUR 90.994.078,00, of which the grant received by Croatia for the implementation of these projects amounts to 72.215.410,75 , 85 euros. Thus, twelve projects received the maximum amount of co-financing of 9 percent, and 6 of them will be implemented by Croatia independently, while XNUMX will be implemented in partnership with other member states.Some of the projects approved in this, the third Call are: Improvement and development of the terminal for receiving dangerous cargo in the river port Slavonski Brod, upgrading the port infrastructure Rijeka (Basin), preparation of documentation for the reconstruction of the railway section Ostarije-Skrljevo and railway sections Okučani-Vinkovci, upgrading the port infrastructure Rijeka – cargo terminal Bakar, infrastructure upgrade in the port Rijeka – port communication system, preparation of environmental impact study for the Sava River, joining Croatia Airlines family EGNOS, SESAR project Croatian Air Navigation Services, CROCODILE 3 Croatia and many others.A total of 32 transport projects with a total value of more than 422 million euros were approved in three CEF CallsOdobrenjem ovih 15 projekata, Hrvatska ima odobreno ukupno 32 prometna projekta koji se sufinanciraju iz CEF-a, odnosno odobreno  je projekata u ukupnoj vrijednosti 422.808.914,15 eura, što čini 93,05% iskorištenosti CEF instrumenta za promet. Iz Vlade ističu kako je Republici Hrvatskoj, odnosno Ministarstvu mora, prometa i infrastrukture, kao koordinatoru Instrumenta za povezivanje Europe (CEF) na dosadašnja dva poziva odobreno je 17 projekata sa ukupnim sufinanciranjem od 350.593.503,40 eura bespovratnih sredstava.“Instrument za povezivanje Europe (Connecting Europe Facility – CEF) je instrument je osnovan za dodatna ulaganja u izgradnju nove te unapređenje postojeće prometne, energetske i telekomunikacijske infrastrukture, pomoću kojeg države članice, osim iz postojećih Strukturnih fondova i Kohezijskog fonda mogu financirati projekte na devet koridora Osnovne mreže Transeuropske prometne mreže (TEN-T). Cilj instrumenta je pomoći u stvaranju međusobno povezanih mreža visokih performansi širom Europe, koje će biti ekološki održive te pridonositi ekonomskom rastu, socijalnoj i teritorijalnoj koheziji unutar Europske unije.” conclude from the Government of the Republic of Croatia.last_img read more